By Paul S. Agutter, Denys N. Wheatley
This booklet makes use of sleek organic wisdom to take on the query of what distinguishes dwelling organisms from the non-living international. The authors first draw on fresh advances in phone and molecular biology to increase an account of the dwelling kingdom that applies to all organisms (and in simple terms to organisms). This account is then used to discover questions about evolution, the foundation of lifestyles, and the potential for extraterrestrial existence. the unconventional technique taken by way of this booklet to concerns in biology will curiosity and be obtainable to either the overall reader in addition to scholars and experts within the box.
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From now on we shall describe the picture of the cell encapsulated in Fig. 6-1 as the cell’s internal state. “Internal state” denotes the quantities of all the cell’s ingredients at a particular moment, their organisation in space, the sum total of the metabolic events taking place, the directions of all the transport processes and what they are transporting, and the ways in which these different features interlock. “Internal” indicates the overall situation within one cell, not what might be taking place outside it or in other cells.
In this case the paired duplicate chromosomes are separated by motor-driven fibres so that each daughter cell receives an equal share. A chromosome is a single DNA molecule packaged with specialised proteins. Remember there are 46 DNA molecules and therefore 46 chromosomes in an ordinary human cell. They must all be duplicated before the cell divides so that each daughter cell still has the correct chromosome number - 46. The motor-driven fibres separate one set of 46 from the duplicate set; then the cell splits into two identical, viable halves.
46 Chapter 5 When you wiggle your toes, the muscles in your lower leg contract and relax. Muscle contraction involves specially-adapted cytoskeletal fibres in the muscle cells. These fibres, which are arranged in parallel, slide between one another, shortening the muscle cell when they slide one way, lengthening it when they slide the other. The sliding of the fibres is another motor-driven mechanism. All animal muscles seem to work in this way: your biceps, a blowfly's flight muscles, a shark's jaw, a worm's body.
About Life: Concepts in Modern Biology by Paul S. Agutter, Denys N. Wheatley